development zones (urban)


development zones (urban)
‘Development zones’ (fazhanqu) are areas developed to attract foreign direct investment and economic development. A development zone may be called Special Economic Zone, Economic Development Zone, Technology Development Zone or Industrial Park. From 1980, when the Chinese government decided to establish ‘special economic zones’, to 2001, China had established and officially recognized about 200 development zones to attract investment from overseas and to promote economic development. Five Special Economic Zones established in the early 1980s were located in Shenzhen, Zhuhai, Shantou, Xiamen and Hainan. There are both national and regional development zones. National Development Zones currently include thirty-five Economic and Technological Development Zones, twelve Bonded Zones and thirteen Border Economic Cooperation Zones.
In addition, more than 140 Regional Development Zones are spread across the country.
Economic development zones have played an important role in attracting foreign direct investment and restructuring the Chinese economy from a central planning system to a market-oriented system. The government provides incentives to foreign investors in the fields of land management, urban service, legal protection, and income and customs taxes. Multiple modes of ownership, including foreign ownership and joint venture between foreign-owned and domestic-owned firms, have been developed. A labour contracting system has replaced the government assignment system. Moreover, developmental zones have had important impacts on Chinese experiences of urban space. Millions of migrants, most of whom are from rural areas, work in development zones. Some special economic development zones like the Shenzhen Special Economic Zone have become tourist attractions.
REN HAI

Encyclopedia of contemporary Chinese culture. . 2011.

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